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Project E!7614 PDF Tisk Email
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Neděle, 13 Prosinec 2009 11:28




1. General description

Water is either the natural part of porous substances (organic and inorganic), or it penetrates them, often by complicated processes. The substances which are the subject of investigation in the given project constitute a complex three-component environment, in which the solid component is represented not only by organic particles, soil, earth, weathered rock, bedrock, but also by water in solid state (snow, ice), the liquid component is usually represented by water and aqueous solutions and also by other water-immiscible fluids (e.g. petroleum, mineral oil) and the gaseous component is represented by air, aerosols and the other gases. In relation to flow and transport of substances, the given porous environment is made up of a complicated system of solid particles of different geometric and physical-chemical properties, and pores. The geometry of pores is very difficult to describe; some pores are interconnected, others not. Due to the interconnection of pores, the
permeability of the system is ensured for liquid components (gases, fluids) which fully fill it, but in a different ratio. According to the volume of the liquid component present in pores, the degree of saturation is defined. Based on the degree of saturation, it is possible to characterize the porous substance or environment as dry, damp, moist, very moist, or saturated, e.g., by water. The content of water (moisture) in porous substances or in an environment belongs to the fundamental parameters characterizing the properties of organic and inorganic substances and is one of the characteristic variables which significantly influences a number of other physical parameters, e.g. permittivity and resistivity. The dynamics of changes in the content of water, and hence moisture as well, can be determined using various methods and procedures. They also include the indirect measuring method of electrical impedance spectrometry (EIS), which began to be applied more significantly since the end of the last century. The subject of the solution of the project is the construction of a set of instruments of a multi-channel automated system for monitoring electrical impedance of porous substances and its changes due to changes in water content. The developed system enables the measurement of both the real electrical resistance or electrical conductance of substances, and also some of their properties (the imaginary part of electrical impedance). It becomes evident that the areas of application are wide. In the area of water management, the system is designed for monitoring changes in soil moisture (electrical conductance) due to the suction capability of soil (bank suction, induced suction, suction from precipitation) and water infiltration. The content of water in soils (moisture) is significantly involved in their shear strength, and therefore has a great significance in geotechnical practice. In addition to the processes that take place in soils, the project is focused on the use of the system in agriculture in optimization of irrigation and in the food industry, e.g. in monitoring meat ageing. Another application can be assumed in the building industry in monitoring the moisture of masonry at different depths (treatment of constructions after flooding), in documenting the process of drying of masonry of historical buildings, in monitoring changes in the moisture of wooden building elements, or in hydrology, e.g. in monitoring the height and structure of snow cover. The individual partners of the project are concerned with a wide range of problems within their professional specialization in relation to the overall concept of the project. The goal of the submitted project is to develop and construct a modular measuring system for selected applications and specific requirements of measurement in the real environment, to modify the offer of the system consisting of a measuring device (Z-meter), probes with a definable total length and with a possible option of the number of measuring sensors, each of them having its determined position, to enable the battery source of electric power of the system to be recharged from a solar panel in the case that the system is permanently mounted at a monitored site, to minimize the energy consumption of the system while enabling continuous or long-lasting discrete measurement. The project also sets a goal to process output data in such a manner which would become usable also for those subjects and persons who do not have sufficient expert knowledge, yet they are able to understand and make use of sensed key data in their work and within the use of the measuring system. One of the most important properties of the concept is the capability of data processing online and informing the user about the situation on the basis of the achievement of pre-defined measured values so that it is possible, if necessary, to respond immediately to a situation that has occurred and to act. Technological Development Envisaged
The Czech carrier – the coordinator of the project with a team of co-investigators who will also ensure individual applications in the conditions of the Czech Republic and cooperate in
implementations made by foreign partners – will be concerned with the solution, implementation and production of the modular system of measurement of changes in electrical impedance of porous substances. The solution includes the implementation of measuring devices (Z-meters) in the number of measuring points according to market and application requirements. The information system will be created in such a manner so that it is capable of both batch processing of data and online transmission of measured values using not only a primarily mobile data network, but also wireless connection. Therefore, if an application requires remote data transmission, a part of the solution will be a corresponding module operating with Wi-Fi transmission of signal or a GSM data network. Upon the user’s request, a software module will be prepared for measurement processing in the particular application with a possible link of data formats to programs used. The concept of the requested monitoring will be followed by the structural arrangement of the measuring device where emphasis will be given chiefly to low-energy, long-lasting autonomous operation (recharging the operating accumulator by a solar cell). An important implementation feature is the structural design of measuring probes for the chosen application and site where the applied EIS method requires the contact of the measuring probe with the monitored environment. The investigator will collaborate in the project implementation with the companies of Ing. Radkovský and Ing. Ševčík, and in the area of software, with Mr. Marian Němec and Ing. Peter Lovísek. During the determined time, suitable sites (on the territory of both the chief investigator of the project and also the partners of the project) will be chosen step by step for the selected applications according to the requirements of practice. At these sites, the given changes that take place in porous substances will be monitored. At the partners’ workplaces, operators of the equipment ensuring continuous monitoring, processing and evaluation of measured data will be trained. The given output will also be provided to the carrier of the project to allow them the presentation of the system. In the area of applications in the building industry, the investigator of the project will collaborate with the companies Thermo Sanace, s.r.o., Vodní díla – TBD, a.s. (Dam Safety Surveillance and Supervision), basin agencies, the state administration etc.; in applications in the food industry, mainly with the company Výzkumný ústav pro chov skotu, s.r.o. (Research Institute for Cattle Breeding, Ltd.); and in the area of agriculture and irrigation optimization, with the company of Mr. Kabela.





o Katholieke Hogeschool Brugge Oostende






o Water Research Institute (IRSA) // National Research Council (CNR)



o University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland/School of Architecture, Civil Eng. and Geomatics/Inst of Civil Eng









o Slovac Academy of Sciences / Institute of Hydrology, Research Hydrological


Poslední aktualizace Neděle, 13 Leden 2013 11:08

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